- While collective responsibility for the raising of children (including those who have lost their parents due to war or disease) is common among some of Russia’s ethnic minorities, historically speaking, the tradition of adopting orphans is culturally absent among ethnic Russians. During the Soviet period, unwanted births were rather rare, as free abortions were provided through the health care system and typically used as an ersatz form of birth control. With the crushing financial and social burdens that accompanied shock therapy under the Yeltsin administration and the dismantling of socialized health care, many single women and some married couples opted to give their infants and children over to state care during the 1990s and beyond.The current preference for small families in Russia, combined with traditional social stigmas associated with adoption, has resulted in little demand for domestic adoptions, thus filling Russia’s orphanages with parentless children. Lacking well-paid staff and even basic facilities, these orphanages quickly became unlivable, creating a generation of forgotten children who suffered from physical and mental neglect. Like several other post-Soviet countries (including Kazakhstan and Ukraine), the Russian Federation turned to international adoption to mitigate this problem. By 2000, the number of international adoptions of Russian orphans by United States citizens alone was averaging in excess of 4,000 per year; this figure represented approximately half of all annual international adoptions from Russia, with citizens of the European Union (EU) and Israel making up the remainder.In recent years, the number has decreased by more than half, partly as a result of state-backed efforts to increase domestic adoption, but also because of improvements in Russia’s health care and social support systems. Political pressure also contributed to the decline. The death of an adoptee in 2005, and several other documented cases of physical abuse of children adopted from Russia by American families, led Russian politicians to condemn the practice, particularly by Americans. New rules instituted in 2007, after a severalmonths-long moratorium on international adoptions, have made it increasingly difficult for foreigners to adopt. The most high-profile adoption occurred in 2004, when Gerhard Schröder and his wife adopted a three-year-old Russian girl from a children’s home in St. Petersburg. There was speculation in the international media that Schröder chose the site of the adoption in an attempt to curry favor with Vladimir Putin, a native of the northern capital city; the couple later adopted a boy from the same orphanage.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
International adoption — International adoption, or intercountry adoption, is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child born in another country. In general, prospective adoptive parents must meet the legal… … Wikipedia
International adoption of South Korean children — The International adoption of South Korean children is a recent historical process triggered initially by casualties of the Korean War after 1953. The initiative was taken by religious organizations in the United States, Australia, and many… … Wikipedia
Adoption in the United States — is the legal act of adoption, of permanently placing a person under the age of 18 with a parent or parents other than the birth parents in the United States.The 2000 census was the first census in which adoption statistics were collected. The… … Wikipedia
International Accounting Standards — International Financial Reporting Standards Les normes internationales d information financière, plus connues au sein de la profession comptable et financière sous leur nom anglais de International Financial Reporting Standards ou IFRS sont des… … Wikipédia en Français
Adoption disclosure — refers to the official release of information relating to the legal adoption of a child. Throughout much of the 20th century, many Western countries had legislation intended to prevent adoptees and adoptive families from knowing the identities of … Wikipedia
ADOPTION — ADOPTION, taking another s child as one s own. Alleged Cases of Adoption in the Bible The evidence for adoption in the Bible is so equivocal that some have denied it was practiced in the biblical period. (A) GENESIS 15:2–3. Being childless, Abram … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Adoption — For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). Sister Irene of New York Foundling Hospital with children. Sister Irene is among the pioneers of modern adoption, establishing a system to board out children rather than institutionalize them.… … Wikipedia
International Financial Reporting Standards — Les normes internationales d information financière, plus connues au sein de la profession comptable et financière sous leur nom anglais de International Financial Reporting Standards ou IFRS sont des normes comptables, élaborées par le Bureau… … Wikipédia en Français
Adoption in California — Agencies that handle adoption in California can range from government funded agencies that place California children at little of no cost, to attorneys who arrange private adoptions, to international non profit adoption agencies. Total adoption… … Wikipedia
International status and usage of the euro — Worldwide use of the euro and US$: Eurozone … Wikipedia